WORLD DATA CENTERS / GENERAL REVIEW AND BACKGROUND

WORLD DATA CENTERS / GENERAL REVIEW AND BACKGROUND

Postby salsinawi » Wed Aug 16, 2006 10:03 pm

WORLD DATA CENTERS / GENERAL REVIEW AND BACKGROUND

Description of World Data Centers

World Data Centers conduct international exchange of geophysical observations in accordance with the principles set forth by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). They were established in 1957 by the International Geophysical Year Committee (CSAGI) as part of the fundamental international planning for the IGY program to collect data from the numerous and widespread IGY observational programs and to make such data readily accessible to interested scientists and scholars for an indefinite period of time. WDC-A was established in the U.S.A.; WDC-B, in the U.S.S.R.; and WDCC, in Western Europe, Australia, and Japan. This new system for exchanging geophysical data was found to be very effective, and the operations of the World Data Centers were extended by ICSU on a continuing basis to other international programs; the WDC's were under the supervision of the Comite International de Geophysique (CIG) for the period 1960 to 1967 and are now supervised by the ICSU Panel on World Data Centres.

The current plans for continued international exchange of geophysical data through the World Data Centers are set forth in the Third Consolidated Guide to International Data Exchange through the World Data Centres, issued by the ICSU Panel on World Data Centres, December 1973. These plans are broadly similar to those adopted under ICSU auspices for the IGY and subsequent international programs.

Functions and Responsibilities of WDC's

The World Data Centers collect data and publications for the following disciplines: Glaciology; Meteorology; Oceanography; Rockets and Satellites; Solar-Terrestrial Physics disciplines (Solar and Interplanetary Phenomena, Ionospheric Phenomena, Flare Associated Events, Geomagnetic Phenomena, Aurora, Cosmic Rays, Airglow); Solid-Earth Geophysics disciplines (Seismology, Tsunamis, Marine Geology and Geophysics, Gravimetry, Earth Tides, Recent Movements of the Earth's Crust, Rotation of the Earth, Magnetic Measurements, Paleomagnetism and Archeomagnetism, Volcanology, Geothermics). In planning for the various scientific programs, decisions on data exchange were made by the scientific community through the international scientific unions and committees. In each discipline the specialists themselves determined the nature and form of data exchange, based on their needs as research workers. Thus the type and amount of data in the WDC's differ from discipline to discipline.

The objects of establishing several World Data Centers for collecting observational data were: (1) to insure against loss of data by the catastrophic destruction of a single center, (2) to meet the geographical convenience of, and provide easy communication for, workers in different parts of the world. Each WDC is responsible for: (1) endeavoring to collect a complete set of data in the field or discipline for which it is responsible, (2) safekeeping of the incoming data, (3) correct copying and reproduction of data, maintaining adequate standards of clarity and durability, (4) supplying copies to other WDC's of data not received directly, (5) preparation of catalogs of all data in its charge, and (6) making data in the WDC's available to the scientific community. The WDC's conduct their operation at no expense to ICSU or to the ICSU family of unions and committees.

b]World Data Center System [/b]

Scientific data gathering has a long history, but mechanisms for data distribution and exchange are more recent. The first large-scale international scientific enterprises were the International Polar Years of 1882-1883 which eventually led to the International Geophysical Year of 1957-1958. Planning of the IGY was coordinated by CSAGI, the Special Committee for the IGY set up by the International Council for Science. CSAGI established the World Data Center system to serve the IGY, and developed data management plans for each IGY scientific discipline. Because of its success, the WDC system was made permanent and used for post-IGY data.

Over the years the tally of WDCs has changed. A comprehensive set of WDCs was established in China in 1988. The WDC in the U.S.A. has expanded and WDC in Russia is now operated by three different organizations. Some of the WDC centers in Europe and Asia have moved or have closed, but new centers have opened. In 1999, the method of naming WDCs was modified to remove the -A, -B, -C, and -D references. World Data Centers are now referenced by the type of center without reference to the country operating the center, i.e. WDC for Glaciology. If there is more than one WDC for a discipline, the name of the city where the WDC resides is appended, i.e. WDC for Glaciology, Boulder. All centers now have computer facilities and most use electronic networks to meet requests, exchange catalog information and transfer data.

Today the WDC system is healthy and viable. Most centers are maintaining their funding, though not without struggle. Data acquisition, storage and distribution are expensive, WDCs cost money, but they are cost-effective in transferring data to users, and their operational costs represent a tiny fraction of worldwide scientific activity. The ICSU Panel on World Data Centres hopes that this Guide will provide a useful overview of the system

Mission Statement of the World Data Center System
Data constitute the raw material of scientific understanding. The World Data Center system works to guarantee access to solar, geophysical and related environmental data. It serves the whole scientific community by assembling, scrutinizing, organizing and disseminating data and information
Planetary Geophysics HomePage

[RESPONSIBILITIES OF A WORLD DATA CENTER

1 In accord with the General Principles, World Data Centers will fulfil data exchange requirements set out in the current version of the Guide to the World Data Center System. To the extent possible they will also respond to resolutions and recommendations from appropriate international organizations.

2 Duplication of data collections between WDCs may be specified in some disciplines.

3 Whenever possible the exchange of data between World Data Centers will take place without charge.

4 The provision of WDC data to an individual scientist or institution will normally require a charge to cover the costs of duplication and handling. This charge may be waived when the individual or institution is a contributor to the WDC concerned.

5 A WDC may also provide a mechanism for a scientist to request data not explicitly described in the Guide to the World Data Center System. In response to a bona fide request for such data, the WDC will attempt to obtain the data or forward the request to another WDC for action.

6 Where a WDC maintains a data collection, it must provide proper facilities for data storage and maintenance, and ensure that data copies are subject to adequate standards of accuracy, clarity and durability.

7 World Data Centers will explore the utilization of modern technology for data storage, data communications and user access.

8 Each World Data Center must be open to visitors and guest workers from any country and all data held under WDC auspices must be accessible to such visitors and workers.

9 Each World Data Center has a responsibility to make available to other WDCs and the scientific community a detailed description of the data available through the WDC.

10 Where more than one WDC holds or has access to data in a given discipline, joint data catalogs or inventories should be compiled.

11 World Data Centers endeavor to coordinate their activities, standardize data formats and cooperate in international projects and to this end visits by WDC staff to other WDCs and to international scientific meetings are encouraged.

12 World Data Centers receive data from many sources. While every attempt will be made to assure reasonable standards of data quality and related documentation, the ultimate responsibility for data reliability lies with the data contributor, not the WDC.


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World Data Center A

World Data Center A, for which the National Academy of Sciences through the Geophysics Research Board and its Committee on Data Interchange and Data Centers has over-all responsibility, consists of the WDC-A Coordination Office and seven subcenters at scientific institutions in various parts of the United States. The GRB periodically reviews the activities of WDC-A and has conducted several studies on the effectiveness of the WDC system. As a result of these reviews and studies some of the subcenters of WDC-A have been relocated so that they could more effectively serve the scientific community. The addresses of the WDC-A subcenters and Coordination Office are given inside the front cover.

The data received by WDC-A have been made available to the scientific community in various ways: (1) reports containing data and results of experiments have been compiled, published, and widely distributed; (2) synoptic type data on cards, microfilm, or tables are available for use at the subcenters and for loan to scientists; (3) copies of data and reports are provided upon request.

Data Report Series

This is one in a series of data and information publications issued by World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics. Future numbers will be printed at irregular intervals as a convenient method of making available in printed form those data sets for which there is a potential widespread interest. The World Data Center endeavors to support with publication services and data-exchange activities international programs in geophysics from its inception in the International Geophysical Year (1957-5 to the present International Geodynamics Project. The World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics is maintained by the National Geophysical and Solar-Terrestrial Data Center (NGSDC) of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Environmental Data and Information Service (EDIS)

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WORLD DATA CENTER B
World Data Centers in Russia
Geophysical Center RAS
Center for Geophysical Computer Data Studies
National Geophysical Committee of Russian Federation
NGC Newsletter (in Russian)
Geophysical Department of the Library for Natural Sciences RAS
Scientific Council of RAS for problems of IDNDR
Department of Geology, Geophysics, Geochemistry, and Mining Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences

WDC-Russia is a component part of the World Data Center System organized and maintained by the International Council for Science (ICSU). WDC System activity is coordinated by the ICSU Panel on WDCs and carried out according to the WDC System Guide.
There are seven discipline World Data Centers situated in Russia:
WDC Solar-Terrestrial Physics Moscow Russia
WDC Solid Earth Physics Moscow Russia
WDC Meteorology Obninsk Russia
WDC Oceanography Obninsk Russia
WDC Rockets and Satellites Obninsk Russia
WDC Rotation of the Earth Obninsk Russia
WDC Marine Geology and Geophysics Gelendzhik Russia (Russian only)
Details of the WDCs in Russia are given on their WWW Home Pages.

WDC-Russia is operated by three different organizations: the National Geophysical Committee of Russian Federation (WDC Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Solid Earth Physics), the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (WDC Meteorology, Oceanography, Rockets and Satellites, and Rotation of the Earth), and the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russian Federation (WDC Marine Geology and Geophysics).

This WWW server maintained jointly by the Geophysical Center and the Center for Geophysical Computer Data Studies.
Last revision 2002/10/10
Tel: +7 (095) 930-0546, fax: +7 (095) 930-0506
e-mail: webmaster@wdcb.ru


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Dr. Natalia A. Sergeyeva, Director
WDC for Solid Earth Physics, Moscow
World Data Center B
Molodezhnaya 3
Moscow, 117296
RUSSIA
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Dr. Stuart Sipkin
WDC for Seismology, Denver
U.S. Geological Survey
Denver Federal Center MS 967
P.O. Box 25046
Denver, CO 80225-0046
USA
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Prof. ZHAO Zhonghe, Director
WDC for Seismology, Beijing
National Center of Seismic Data & Information
State Seismological Bureau
56 Sanlihe Road
P.O. Box 2141
Beijing, 100045
CHINA
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WDC COORDINATION OFFICES

Dr. Anne M. Linn, Director
WDC Coordination Office, USA
National Research Council, HA 372
2101 Constitution Ave.
Washington, DC 20418
USA
Tel: +1 202 334 2744
Fax: +1 202 334 1377
E-mail: alinn@nas.edu

Prof. CHEN Panqin, Director
Ms. Guo Yaxi, Vice Director
WDC Coordination Office, China
Bureau of Science and Technology for Resources and Environment
Chinese Academy of Sciences
52 Sanlihe Road
Beijing, 100864
CHINA
Tel: +86 10 685 97 546
Fax: +86 10 685 97 552
E-mail: pqchen@office.cashq.ac.cn
yxguo@rose.cashq.ac.cn
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Solid Earth Geophysics
Prof. TANG Keyun, Director
WDC for Geophysics, Beijing
Institute of Geophysics
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing, 100101
CHINA

Mr. Allen M. Hittelman, Director
WDC for Solid Earth Geophysics, Boulder
NOAA/NGDC E/GC1
325 Broadway
Boulder, CO 80303
USA

Dr. Natalia A. Sergeyeva, Director
WDC for Solid Earth Physics, Moscow
Molodezhnaya 3
Moscow, 117296
RUSSIA

Dr. Jaroslav Simek, Director
WDC for Recent Crustal Movements
Geodetic Observatory Pecny
Ondrejov 244
CZ-251 65
CZECH REPUBLIC

SOURCE:
http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/wdc/roster.html
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